Medication is the main part of the plan for many people to lower blood pressure. These drugs are also known as antihypertensive medicine. They cannot cure the blood pressure completely but can help return it to its normal state.
The type of medication to take will depend on certain things like how your blood pressure is, how your body responds to drugs and what is causing it. Most people might require more than one type of drug to control their high blood pressure.
Therefore, in case you are suffering from blood pressure ensure that you consult a doctor to find out the type of drug that will work for you. Here are different types of blood pressure medication and their side effects.
Angiotensin ll receptor blockers
Angiotensin-ll receptor blocker narrows the blood vessels and increases the blood pressure. It also releases a hormone that is responsible for increasing water and sodium in your body. Having more blood/fluid will cause high blood pressure. Angiotensin also promotes the stiffening and thickening of blood vessels.Angiotensin-ll enhances vasodilatation and lowers blood pressure. Some of the examples of angiotensin ll receptor blockers include:
• Valsartan [Diovan]
Diuretics are as well called “water pills “because they assist in eliminating sodium and excess water thus promoting urination. This reduces blood vessels fluid volume. It the decreases pressures against the artery wall, therefore, lowering blood pressure. Classes of the diuretic drug include loop, thiazide, and potassium-sparing. Examples of diuretics include:
ACE means Angiotensin Converting Enzyme. Angiotensin-ll is a product that is known for promoting the narrowing of the blood vessel and increasing blood pressure. ACE inhibitor decreases the production of angiotensin ll; as such reducing the blood pressure. Examples of ACE inhibitors are:
• Ramipril [Altace]
• Benazepril [Lotensin]
• Quinapril [Accupril]
This type of drug can also be referred to as beta-adrenergic blocking agents. It inhibits the actions of a hormone known as epinephrine causing less forceful and slower heartbeat. Also, Beta brokers can promote the widening of blood vessels. The combination of these two actions causes the blood pressure to reduce. Examples of Beta-blockers include:
• Acebutol [Sectral]
• Metoprolol [Lopressor]
• Atenolol [Tenormin]
The category of this drug may also be known as alpha-adrenergic antagonists. It inhibits the effects of norepinephrine which tightens the blood vessel muscles. Alpha blocker relaxes the muscles allowing for wider blood vessel thus lowering the blood pressure. Examples of Alpha Blockers include:
• Prazosin [Minipress]
• Doxazosin [Cardura]
Renin is an enzyme that enhances the production of angiotensin ll. As mentioned earlier, angiotensin ll causes vasoconstriction increasing the blood pressure. As such, Renin inhibitor prevents renin effects from taking place thus promoting vasodilatation and decreasing blood pressure. Examples of rennin inhibitor include:
• Aliskiren [Terturna]Central AgonistsThis drug can be put into the category of centrally acting agents, central adrenergic or central alpha agonists. They prevent the narrowing of blood vessels as well as increased heart rate by decreasing signals to the nervous system. This results in lowering blood pressure. Examples of central agonists include:• Guanfacine [Tenex]
• Clonidine [Catapres]
This drug relaxes the muscles in the wall of your blood vessel. The vessel then widens, and the blood can flow through easily.
Peripheral Adrenergic Blockers
These drugs prevents the signals that your brain sends from reaching to your blood vessels by tightening them.
However, doctors do not prescribe these drugs more often. Examples:
• Guanadrel [Hylorel]
• Reserpine [Serpasil]
Side Effects of Blood Pressure Medication
• They cause dizziness, weakness, and lightheadedness, especially when standing up suddenly or waking up in the morning due to reduced blood pressure.
• Irregular and very rapid heartbeat
• They cause diarrhea and stomach pain
• A dry cough that does not go away easily
• You may also experience insomnia and sleep issues
• Cold feet and hands
• A headache and fatigue
• Swollen ankles and knee pain
• Erection problem
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